Tag: monument in Rome

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    The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheater, is a Roman amphitheater located in the archaeological center of Rome. One of the most visited attractions of the Eternal City, the Colosseum is the largest amphitheater in the world, symbol of the power of the mighty Roman Empire.   SHORT HISTORY The construction of the Colosseum began in the year 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian, of the Flavian dynasty, hence the name of Flavian Amphitheater. The amphitheater was inaugurated by Titus, son of Vespasian, in 80 AD, and completed by his brother, Domitian, in 82 AD. In 217, after a fire, the Colosseum was partially destroyed. The restoration works closed the amphitheater for five years, and the games were moved to the Circus Maximus. The last gladiatorial fights held in the Colosseum are mentioned around the year 435, and in 523 the structure hosted the last spectacle. Afterwards, the amphitheater went through a period of neglect. Starting with the 6th century, the amphitheater was used as a burial area. In the 13th century, the Frangipani family fortified it, using it as a castle. The name Colosseum appeared for the first time in the 8th century, and it probably derived from Read more [...]

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    Trajan’s Forum

    The Forum of Trajan, also known as Forum Ulpium, is the largest and most monumental of the Imperial Forums of Rome, and the last in chronological order.   SHORT HISTORY Built by the emperor Trajan with the spoils of war from the conquest of Dacia, and inaugurated in 112, the forum was arranged parallel to the Forum of Caesar and perpendicular to that of Augustus. The building of the new monumental complex, commissioned by Trajan himself, required extensive excavation work, involving the elimination of the saddle that connected the Capitoline and Quirinale Hills, and closed the valley of the Fori Imperiali towards Campo Marzio. At the same time, the Mercati di Traiano (Trajan’s Markets) were built, a complex of buildings with mainly administrative functions, linked to the activities that took place in the forum. The project of the new complex is attributed to Apollodorus of Damascus, who accompanied Trajan in his military campaigns in Dacia.   ARCHITECTURE The complex, which measures 300 meters in length and 185 meters in width, includes the Trajan’s Markets, the Basilica Ulpia, a porticoed courtyard with the Trajan’s Column and the Ulpian Library. All the buildings of the Forum were covered with marbles and stuccos, Read more [...]

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    Flaminio Obelisk

    The Flaminio Obelisk is one of the thirteen ancient obelisks of Rome, located in the center of Piazza del Popolo.   SHORT HISTORY The obelisk was partially built in 1300 BC, at the time of Pharaoh Seti I, and completed by his son, Ramses II, in the 13th century BC. Then, the obelisk was placed in the Temple of the Sun from Heliopolis, in Egypt. In the year 10 BC, the obelisk was brought by ship to Rome, at the behest of Octavian Augustus, together with the Montecitorio Obelisk, and placed in the Circus Maximus. Augustus decided to keep the original dedication of the monument to the Sun, which for the Romans corresponded to Apollo, the tutelary deity of the emperor. He also added two identical dedications on the north and south sides of the base. Probably demolished during the barbarian invasions, it was found in 1587 together with the Lateran Obelisk, and erected again in 1589, by the will of Pope Sixtus V, in Piazza del Popolo. The works were supervised by Domenico Fontana. In 1823, at the behest of Pope Leo XII, the architect Giuseppe Valadier decorated it with a base with four circular basins and as many Read more [...]

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    National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II

    The National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II (Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II), commonly known as Vittoriano or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland), is a large monument located in Piazza Venezia, in Rome. The monument, which can be seen from almost every point in the city, is dedicated to Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, the first king of the unified Kingdom of Italy, and to the idea of Risorgimento, the process of national unity and liberation from foreign domination.   SHORT HISTORY After the death of Victor Emmanuel II on January 9, 1878, there were several initiatives to build a permanent monument to celebrate the king. On September 23, 1880, it was launched an international competition for the project of the monument, in which 311 competitors took part. The competition was won by the French architect Henri-Paul Nénot, but his project was later abandoned. After a second and a third competition, it was chosen in 1884 the project of the young architect Giuseppe Sacconi. After the death of Giuseppe Sacconi, which took place in 1905, the works continued under the direction of Gaetano Koch, Manfredo Manfredi and Pio Piacentini. The construction of the equestrian statue of Victor Emmanuel Read more [...]

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    Teatro di Marcello

    Teatro di Marcello is an ancient theater in Rome, built at the behest of Julius Caesar in the southern area of Campo Marzio, between the Tiber River and the Campidoglio.   SHORT HISTORY Julius Caesar desired a theater to rival the one built in Campo Marzio by Pompey. For this purpose, a large area was expropriated, and many buildings were demolished. At the death of Caesar, only the foundations were laid, and the work was resumed by Augustus, who raised a building larger than originally planned. The first use of the building for performances dates back to the year 17 BC. In 13 BC, the theater was officially inaugurated, and dedicated to Marcus Claudius Marcellus, the nephew of Augustus. A first restoration of the theater took place under Vespasian, in the first century AD, and other restorations were made under Severus Alexander, in the third century. In medieval times, the area was gradually occupied by small buildings and the Theater of Marcellus was transformed into a fortified castle.   ARCHITECTURE The original height of the building was approximately 32.60 meters, while its diameter was about 111 meters, and it could hold up to 20,000 spectators. The travertine facade has three Read more [...]

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    Trajan’s Column

    The Trajan’s Column is an ancient monument built to celebrate the conquest of Dacia by the emperor Trajan. Nearly 2000 years after its construction, the column is almost intact, and it’s the best preserved element of the Trajan’s Forum, the largest Imperial Forum of Rome.   SHORT HISTORY The column, probably built under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus, was inaugurated on May 12, 113 AD, and describes the wars with Dacia held between 101 and 106. In 1162, a document of the medieval Senate established the column as a public property and forbade its damage. During the 16th century, some private buildings in the vicinity of the column were demolished, to create a space around it, and the monument can be admired from afar. In 1588, under Pope Sixtus V, the column was renovated by Domenico Fontana. On that occasion, the bronze statue of St. Peter was placed at the top of the column and a fence was erected.   ARCHITECTURE The column is 29.78 meters in height, or 39.86 meters if you include the pedestal and the statue on top, has a 3.83 meters in diameter, and is made from 20 Carrara marble blocks, each weighing Read more [...]